Climate Zone


Severe winter, no dry season, cool summer

Begin by selecting Design Strategies below
Design Strategies for Dfc_Subarctic
Cross Ventilation

Natural ventilation is a passive strategy that uses the natural forces of wind and buoyancy to deliver fresh air into buildings.

Daylighting from Multiple Sides

Daylighting spaces from multiple sides ensure an even distribution of light while reducing the probability of glare.

Direct Gain: Glazing

Direct gain is the simplest form of passive solar heating.

Direct Gain: Heat Storage

A thermal storage system (masonry floors, walls and/or ceilings) is required to absorb and store the heat during the daytime and release it back at night for space heating.

Form for Daylighting

In many cases, an optimal floor plan runs east to west, maximizing the glazing area on the north and south facades to allow daylight to penetrate deeper into the interior spaces.

Green Roof

Green roofs provide a rainwater buffer, purify the air, provide roof insulation, regulate indoor temperature, reduce energy consumption, encourage biodiversity in the city and help moderate the heat island effect.

Indirect Gain: Sunspace

A sunspace is an equatorial-facing area/room in a building with glass roof and walls intended to maximize solar heat gain.

Intermediate Light Shelves

A light shelf is a high-reflecting horizontal surface that allows daylight to penetrate deep into a building.

Side Daylighting

Windows and wall openings allow daylight and solar energy along the perimeter of a building.

Side Daylighting Controls

Horizontal louvers and light shelves are very useful for daylighting since they can block direct sunlight and reflect light up to the ceiling optimizing daylight and views without glare.

Solar Greenhouse

Solar greenhouses are designed to capture heat from the sun’s rays and are typically used to keep plants warm during cold weather.

Solar Shading

Solar shading refers to the shading systems used to control the amount of solar radiation and sunlight admitted from the sun into a building.

Stack Ventilation

Stack ventilation can be used to increase ventilation when the breeze is not sufficient.

Thermal Storage Wall

A thermal storage wall is a masonry wall placed behind the glazing facing the equator that will absorb and store sunlight (heat) during the daytime and release it back at night for space heating.

Top Daylighting

Skylights and clerestories are a source of top daylighting which admit additional daylight and solar energy inside a building.

Top Daylighting Controls

When top daylighting, it is important to integrate shading elements, such as louvers and baffles, to diffuse the direct sunlight, reduce glare and create uniform daylighting inside the space.

Building Facades

Climate-responsive building façades filter solar radiation, daylight, and fresh air from the exterior as appropriate based on climate/seasonal variations to improve indoor comfort.

Clerestories and Skylights

Clerestories and skylights are effective strategies for admitting daylight deeper into the building while reducing direct sunlight and glare and maintaining a high level of privacy.